Type of beekeeping aimed at maximizing the effects of producing honey and other bee products. To this end, the selection of breeds and bee lines is made in terms of their efficiency and productivity. It is allowed here to use all pharmacological and chemical agents authorized by law to eliminate pathogenic hazards (like fungi, parasites, mites) in bee colonies, and above all, treatments are carried out, stimulating the development and productivity of bee colonies. The role of the beekeeper in this system is extremely important and decisive for the success of the apiary.
Beekeeping most often associated with ecological or natural beekeeping. The use of stimulants and medications is either eliminated or based on natural raw materials like herbs. Bees are mainly raised in a manner consistent with the biology of the species and the role of beekeeper is limited to the role of a host who receives honey and other benefits from bees on the assumption that bees need to be left with the necessary amount for life and development.
The method of raising bees in the hollows of trees made by man – this hollow is called a beehive. Wild beekeeping was common at times when the methods of beekeeping in apiaries was not known yet. Wild beekeeping is the whole beekeeping system, most often in the forest, where the role of a beekeeper is limited to the role of a farmer who only looks after and receives bee products – largely in line with the natural development of the bee colony. This is a method that best reflects the ideas of natural beekeeping, where the participation of a beekeeper in bee production is minimal.
A hole, an empty chamber in a tree that was created in a living tree most often due to fungi and was naturally settled by a bee family. Bees live in hollows without any human interference.
Wild beehive log
Part of the tree with a drilled hollow, a wood piece about 2 meters long, hung on a tree at an altitude of about 6 meters – just like a beehive in a living tree.
A hollow made by a beekeeper in a living tree to create a place for beekeeping using beehive methods
Biocenotic trees are trees that provide a food base for animals living in the forest. For bees, apidaes and other pollinators, the flowering phase provides nectar and pollen, and the fruits of these trees are a source of food for other animals. Biocoenotic trees planted as part of the Bartnica Sudetów programme are mainly limes, maples, apple, elms and alyches trees.
Pollinators and a few words about the most important bee species
Insects that contribute to pollination of plants. It is safe to say that without pollinators, people would not have food.
However, it is worth mentioning that the most common pollinators include: bees, mason bees, tapestry, bumblebees, hornets, rockers, hoverflies and wasps.
- EUROPEAN WOOL CARDER BEE – is kind of solitary bees. Solitary bees alone breed nests and raise solitary. In Poland have only three species of this kind. They build their nests with leaves, resin and trichomes. The nests builds in cracks, holes or in the ground. A distinctive feature is the brush on the underside of the abdomen for collecting pollen. Another feature that distinguishes it from other bees is its wings, which are characterised by 3 submarginal chambers. It is likened to wasps, but is thicker than them. Which is not often seen among bees. The males of these bees may show aggression towards their rivals.
- MASON BEE – There are 18 species of Mason Bee in Poland. The mason bee can also be found under the name Osmia ( derived from the Latin name). It is one of the most common bees found in Poland in spring. Mostly inhabits gardens, orchards and meadows. Through which it contributes to the pollination of plants in gardens and orchards. It nests in the ground, in hollow tubular stems and even snail shells, which contributes to the fact that its breeding is not difficult. This bee feeds on flower pollen and nectar. It is distinguished from other bees by its heavily hairy body and lack of a stinger.
- DARK EDGED BEE FLY – can she found on forest edges, woodland glades in parks and gardens. It nests in the soil in the nests of solitary bees of the genus Sticklebacks, Beekeepers. It is an extremely thermophilic fly. It can be found basking on sunny foliage. It is distinguished from other bees by its small head together with its fluffy, long hairy thorax, as well as its long mouth apparatus. In flight, they may resemble hummingbirds or hover butterflies, as they have mastered the art of hovering in the air while taking nectar from flowers and also for laying eggs in stolen nests.
- HOVERFLIES – More than 600 species of Hoverflies have been described. Hoverflies larvae are very effective against aphids because they are specialised aphid eaters. They can eat up to 100 aphids a day. They are facilitated by having hooked spines with which they grasp insects.They are facilitated by having hooked spines with which they grasp insects. The mother lays in colonies of aphids. It can lay up to 1,000 eggs. The adult insect (imago), resembles a wasp but should not be feared as the louse has no stinger.
- HORNET – There is only one species of hornet in Poland and it is the European hornet. It is the original dwelling of the deciduous forests. It builds its nests from decayed wood in places such as hollows, birdhouses or burrows. It is an active species for 22h a day, making it hunt even at night. He often carries out his attacks blindly, as his eyesight is poor but he is sensitive to movement.
- BUMBLEBEE SPECIES – here are 29 bumblebee species to be found in Poland. It is a species that is distinguished by its dense fur, which allows them to fly flowers at temperatures lower than most bees. Of all bees, bumblebees are the best at learning how to obtain pollen. As a result, they are able to solve problems of how to get to the food themselves and pass on this knowledge to other bumblebees. Bumblebee species differ in the length of their uvula, so that those with short uvulae carry out ‘nectar robbery’ because they do not participate in pollination. They mostly nest in rodent burrows, but males do not live in them. Male bumblebees spend the night in flower crowns and are self-sufficient. Of the entire bumblebee family, only the female winters.
- BEE – There are as many as 20 000 species of bees in the world. The bee is the only insect that produces food for humans but to produce a kilogram of honey a bee has to visit as many as four million flowers. Worker bees have different functions in the hive depending on their age. The bee queen lives for about five years and when she dies the worker bees can create a new queen. They do this by feeding the selected larva abundantly with royal jelly. A queen bee, on the other hand, can lay up to 3 000 eggs a day. Bees fly up to 10 km although the most common distance is 3 km. And they can reach flight speeds of up to 25 km/h.
- WAPS – There are more than 120 00 species of wasps, most of which are non-colony-forming wasps. On the other hand, if a wasp has already established a colony, it numbers up to 10 000 individuals. They build nests in burrows, tree hollows or buildings. They build nests in burrows, tree hollows or buildings. Wasps come in all possible colours even metallic blue or bright red. Wasps are predators. They hunt all the pests that damage crops but also eat the fruit, tree sap or nectar. On the other hand, when a wasp stings or is killed it emits a specific odour that makes the rest of the wasps aggressive.